An introduction to the history and geography of australia

The Lowlands are bounded on the west by the Great Western Plateau—great in extent but not height: The western half of Australia consists of the Western Plateauwhich rises to mountain heights near the west coast and falls to lower elevations near the continental centre.

The lithosphere is the outer rock shell of the Earth that consists of the crust and the uppermost portion of the underlying mantle; see plate tectonics. The Dreaming established the laws and structures of society and the ceremonies performed to ensure continuity of life and land.

Clark considered that the three potential pre-European colonising powers and traders of East Asia—the Hindu-Buddhists of southern India, the Muslims of Northern India and the Chinese—each petered out in their southward advance and did not attempt a settlement across the straits separating Indonesia from Australia.

The Simpson Desert is remarkable for its dunes and ridges of red sand. Charles Sturt employed Aboriginal envoys to explore the Murray-Darling ; the lone survivor of the Burke and Wills expedition was nursed by local Aborigines, and the famous Aboriginal explorer Jackey Jackey loyally accompanied his ill-fated friend Edmund Kennedy to Cape York.

She is the first woman to hold the office. The shallow sea that had covered nearly half of Australia during the Early Cretaceous retreated when the long-enduring Chilean-type subduction off eastern Australia was replaced by Mariana-type subduction and back-arc spreading in the Southwest Pacific Ocean that carried New Zealand and the submarine Lord Howe Rise away from Australia.

Terranes of the Tasman Fold Belt The various parts of the Tasman Fold Belt are separated from each other by faults or have boundaries covered by sediment. The arid zone was even wider than it is at present: Moreover, since the end of the 20th century the population of the Northern Territory has become one of the fastest-growing in the country; most residents are concentrated in and around the capital city, Darwin.

The first successful settlement was at Port Darwin in In the Tasman Fold Belt, uncertainty remains about the exact paleotectonic and paleogeographic settings and relationships of the identified terranes and the craton and between the terranes themselves during most of Paleozoic time.

Tasmania and the Australian Alps do not contain any permanent icefields or glaciersalthough they may have existed in the past. They are mostly 3.

Iron-rich basaltic soils are found in the Victoria River basin, as are small tracts of soils with high concentrations of calcium carbonate. Lieutenant James Cook on the other hand, speculated in his journal that the "Natives of New Holland" the East Coast Aborigines whom he encountered might in fact be far happier than Europeans.

Upgraded by the military during World War II, the highway is entirely paved. It remains a prominent feature of Australian Aboriginal art. But trepang fisherman did reach the north coast, which they called "Marege" or "land of the trepang".

Subsequent burial of the sand by sediment of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic age about 66 million years old or younger generated the giant natural gas field at Rankin on the North West Shelf. Mixed mulga-spinifex scrub occupies the red plains of the desert nearby, and farther to the west is a desert of hummock grassland composed of widely spaced clumps of spinifex and Triodia.

Historically part of the British Empire and now a member of the CommonwealthAustralia is a relatively prosperous independent country. The structure of Australia was determined by the following: By the beginning of the Oligocene Epoch about 34 million years ago the ocean was wide enough to allow the unimpeded flow of the Circum-Antarctic Current, which led to the glaciation of Antarctica by insulating it from the rest of the world ocean.

Northern Territory

Its unique flora and fauna include hundreds of kinds of eucalyptus trees and the only egg-laying mammals on Earth, the platypus and echidna. They are now considered a major factor in the decline and extinction of many vulnerable and endangered native species. Australia joins on the side of the Allies.

This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory.

Australia Geography and History PowerPoint

A broad-leaved species of mulga, the witchety bush, harbours a grub much sought by Aboriginal peoples as food. Australia has the largest area of ocean jurisdiction of any country on earth. Saltwater and freshwater crocodiles are also native to the region, as are marine turtles and nearly varieties of snake, more than one-fifth of which are marine species.

Geography of Australia

Three months later, at about midday on 22 Augusthe reached the northernmost tip of the coast and, without leaving the ship, named it Cape York. Thick sand was deposited over the area of rifting that became the western and northwestern margins of Australia as Gondwanaland was breaking up and seafloor spreading was beginning in the northwest during the Late Jurassic about to million years ago and in the west during the Early Cretaceous about to million years ago.

Geologic history The earliest known manifestations of the geologic record of the Australian continent are 4.

Geography of Australia

Following the crisis, the anthropologist Donald Thomson was dispatched by the government to live among the Yolngu. To the south, Australian jurisdiction extends a further miles km to the southern extremity of the island of Tasmaniaand in the north it extends to the southern shores of Papua New Guinea.

Inthe Northern Territory became part of the Commonwealth. Terranes of the Tasman Fold Belt The various parts of the Tasman Fold Belt are separated from each other by faults or have boundaries covered by sediment.

Co-operation[ edit ] Frontier encounters in Australia were not universally negative.GEOGRAPHY. Australia is the only country in the world that covers an entire continent. It is one of the largest countries on Earth. Although it is rich in natural resources and has a lot of fertile land, more than one-third of Australia is desert.

The geography of Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic regions being the world's smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in the world. The population of Australia is concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts. The geography of the country is extremely diverse, ranging from the snow-capped mountains of the Australian Alps and Tasmania to large deserts.

Australia: Australia, the smallest continent and one of the largest countries on Earth, lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. Its capital city is Canberra and its most important economic and cultural centers are Sydney and Melbourne.

History >> Geography >> Oceania >> Australia. Australia. Timeline and History Overview. Australia Timeline. Aborigine. Brief Overview of the History of Australia Australia was first inhabited perhaps 40, years ago by aboriginal peoples.

During the Age of Exploration, the land was discovered and mapped by many Europeans including the. Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by. Australia and Oceania’s history and development have been shaped by its political geography.

Political geography is the internal and external relationships between its various governments, citizens, and territories.

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An introduction to the history and geography of australia
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